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Jamesspime wto, 7 listopad 2017r. o godz. 14:22:35
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The liquid will not necessarily boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the word "furnace" is generally used if the reason is not to boil the liquid.) The warmed or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating system or processes applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation, food preparation, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless is often used in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for vapor locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), mentioned for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of metal instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be observed, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers far more advanced than those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron can be utilized for the heating vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to produce hot water usually, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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Energy
The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised warmth exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -direct method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= level of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of energy in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a open fire heats a partially filled drinking water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure steam generally, hardly above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume still left above to support the steam (steam space). This is the kind of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is in the furnace or firebox that has to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to keep up the heat of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be studied along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating system surface in comparison to a single tube and further boosts heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to the people of the liquid or gas variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, tubes filled with water are arranged in the furnace in a true variety of possible configurations. Usually the water pipes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and top of the ones water and steam; in other instances, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This type gives high steam production rates generally, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any high temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure drinking water/steam is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close collectively and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator where the pipe is permanently filled with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is held so hot that the water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in cars in the 19th century which use continued into the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an set up of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. Within a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside solid iron sections.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to make the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with protection, design and security standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle steel shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up badly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original quantity and travels down vapor pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and warmth around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising plant are affected from level formation and corrosion. At best, this raises energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable operation. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failure and lack of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire structures.[6 -

A boiler that has a loss of give food to water and is permitted to boil dry can be hugely dangerous. If supply water is sent into the vacant boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by protection steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor supply lines that is larger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a strategy to assist in preventing this condition from taking place, and thereby reduce their insurance promises.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce vapor to be utilized at saturation heat range; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and additional heat up the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at higher temperatures, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating flower because the higher vapor temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperatures.[citation needed - There are many ways to circumvent this issue, by giving an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. There are benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its own utilization: increases in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There could be practical restrictions in using wet vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its presence clearly.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temp in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb warmth by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing warmth from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme high temperature in the flue gas route will also warmth the superheater steam piping and the vapor within. While the temperature of the vapor in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power vegetable.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the liquid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is absolutely no era of steam bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which vapor bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine phases, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which turns the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that time may be considered a mix of vapor and liquid droplets as it goes by into the condenser. This results in less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting top of the limit of steam pressure, the working pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the quantity of fire.
Security valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, known as a view cup also, water gauge or drinking water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on underneath of the boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is situated directly on the bottom of the boiler usually, and is sometimes opened to use the pressure in the boiler to drive these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be carried over with the vapor - a condition known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Most entirely on a drinking water boiler commonly.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the steam can 'flash' safely and be found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown moves to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat of the makeup water.
Hand openings: They are metal plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing pipes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Steam drum internals, some display screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn from the burner or shut off gas to the boiler to prevent it from jogging once the drinking water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown series: It offers a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible chemicals that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled a few of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater range. This can be fitted to the comparative part of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: With this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This may reduce boiler exhaustion triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: Some tubes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out steam.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Fuel oil system:gas oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
Name plate:
Registration dish:

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